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US OVERFLIGHTS OF USSR - www.data-freeway.com/plesetsk/overflights.htm

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Overflight is when an aircraft flies over a particular area of geography and doesn't land. Typically the area will be another country. Where the aircraft is not planning to land. The pilots generally have to get permission from the country that they are flying over. Sometimes the pilots may arrange for permission on their own.  But more typically they will hire an overflight company to make contact with the flight control of the other country and to file the necessary forms to get permission.

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Universal Weather - www.universalweather.com - is one of the best known overflight companies.

US Customs & Border Protection - www.cbt.gov - presumably provides overflight permits. But most folks just use overflight companies.

World Air Ops - www.worldairops.com - is another big overflight company.

Air Ops International - www.airopsintl.com - is another big overflight company.

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As example when people fly from New York to Paris they may fly over both Ireland and England before reaching France. In this case the general relationships between all of the different countries are completely friendly. And as long as all of the paperwork is filed on a timely basis the overflight permission will be granted.

As another example flights from the US going to South America may fly over Cuba, with whom the US does not have friendly relations. But nonetheless for the sake of international solidarity and goodwill Cuba will typically grant permission within certain restricted guidelines. Similarly the US might do the same for Cuba. Especially if it is a regularly scheduled flight.

For countries not to grant overflight permission for airplane flights that can largely be verified as harmless is generally considered to be mean-spirited. But nonetheless hostile aircraft can obviously be very dangerous. So for the sake of common cause most countries will tend to work together with other countries they may not feel so friendly about in order to facilitate overflight permission for friendly aircraft.

It is usually illegal for airplanes to try to fly over other countries without permission. Whether by accident or on purpose. Often times the country's air force will scramble to intercept the intruding aircraft. In some cases air forces have even shot down airplanes that accidentally intruded on their airspace.

The most famous example of an aircraft getting shot down for accidentally overflying another country was Korean Air Lines 007 in 1983 by the USSR. Which the USSR apparently legitimately mistook for a regularly scheduled US spy plane. But got accused of cold blooded murder and was not believed. Likewise the US got accused of not warning the aircraft and nonchalantly allowing it to drift into Soviet air space just to see what would happen.

Overflight also refers to spy planes and military aircraft that intentionally fly over another country, fully aware that they do not have permission from the country that they are flying over. In some cases the country's air force will attempt to intercept the intruding aircraft or shoot them down. But in other cases it would be foolish for the country to try to stop the intrusion. And so they will typically do nothing.

Indeed for a country to conduct overflights over another country is typically viewed as humiliating for the country that has to put up with the overflights. In fact it is so humiliating that the governments will often times deny that another country has been flying over them. Because otherwise they would lose face with their own people. Plus it could provide fodder for any political opposition. Citing the overflights as proof of some type of inherent weakness of the current leadership of the country.

Good example here are the US overflights of the Soviet union by U2 aircraft during the 1950s and the early 1960s. Both the US and the Soviet Union had good reason to deny that the flights ever took place.

Finally the Soviet Union managed to shoot down one of the U2 aircraft and the pilot Francis Gary Powers was captured after parachuting into the Soviet Union. Eventually he confessed that he was flying over the Soviet Union. But of course he was. How else could he have parachuted in to Russia?

After that the US continued to conduct overflights of the Soviet Union with the SR 71 aircraft. Which flew too fast for the Soviets to catch with either interceptor aircraft or with missiles. So again the US had no good reason to rub Russia's nose in the humiliation. And Russia had no good reason to advertise the fact that the US was humiliating them on a regular basis.

Meanwhile the Soviet Union lacked the ability to conduct overflights of the US with any type of impunity. You can be sure that any Soviet aircraft overflying US airspace would not have lasted very long. Or indeed if the Soviets were successful they would have had no good reason to taunt the US and rub their noses in it and the US would've had no good reason to advertise their humiliation.

The one well known exception to the lack of the Soviet overflights over the US were flights by the Soviet national airline Aeroflot. Apparently these commercial aircraft had cameras built into them and doubled as spy planes. So on various routine flights between the US and Europe and between various US cities they were able to overfly various US military installations. In particular they were able to conduct overflights of New London Connecticut, where the US bases their nuclear submarines.

So obviously this was an important piece of information for the Soviets. But again while the US was not happy about it they largely avoided advertising their humiliation.

In addition overflight also refers to situations where an aircraft flies over some well-known piece of geography, such as the Grand Canyon. Or likewise where law enforcement may fly over particular areas to conduct their own surveillance. In a similar manner to how countries may spy on each other. Except on an individual.

Also sometimes countries will use overflights to taunt the other country into responding so they can claim an excuse to attack. Indeed some countries view even illuminating their aircraft with radar as sufficient provocation. But this is obviously a high-horse attitude to assert dominance and air superiority. In essence telling the other country that they better keep their planes hidden, or else. Similarly countries will often take the same attitude against tanks and other military vehicles. Saying it is okay for the countries to have them. Just not out in the open.

EXAMPLES

"I need to arrange for overflight permission when I fly from Hong Kong to Moscow."

"When we go to Las Vegas next week we are going to take an overflight of the Grand Canyon."

"With all of these drones we can expect a lot more overflight activity from local police forces."

"Google is conducting a bunch of overflights over the Himalayas as part of their worldwide mapping project."


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THE LIFE STORY OF RICHARD NIXON - KING FEATURES SYNDICATE 1955

This series of cartoons was produced by King Features and illustrated by A.S. Packer in November 1955. President Dwight Eisenhower had a heart attack in September 1955. So the purpose of the cartoons appears to be to reassure the American public that the country would be in good hands with Richard Nixon as president in case Eisenhower took a turn for the worse.

A.S. Packer was a well known illustrator in his day -  google images

So far haven't figured out who wrote the copy, but have good suspicions it might have been James Flowers, who also simplified the copy for some of the Prince Valiant cartoons and who later went on to do press work for Nixon, both as VP and as President.

The cartoons ran in a bunch of newspapers in late 1955 and then again in the lead-up to the elections of 1956 and 1960.

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TOUCHED-UP SCANS

Richard Nixon - Child - 1 - scan
Richard Nixon - Adult - 1 - scan

Richard Nixon - Child - 2 - scan
Richard Nixon - Adult - 2 - scan

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ORIGINAL UN-RETOUCHED SCANS

Richard Nixon - Child - 1 - scan
Richard Nixon - Adult - 1 - scan

Richard Nixon - Child - 2 - scan
Richard Nixon - Adult - 2 - scan

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COPY AND COMMENTARY FROM CARTOONS:

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The Life Story of Richard Nixon
Illustrated by A.S Packer

Boyhood

Hard work was the key note of the Nixon family. Richard Milhous Nixon, second son of Francis and Hannah Nixon, learned this lesson early while chopping weeds on his father's lemon farm at Yorba Linda California, where he was born January 9, 1913. When the growth itself turned out to be a lemon the family went to Whittier California and set up a general store and filling station...

... In school Nixon was a bright student. He was a good debater, and made his debut in the seventh grade on the boys team upholding, against the girl's, the affirmative "Resolved, that insects are more beneficial than harmful." Searching for facts, Dick buttonholed and entomologist uncle. Nixon's team wanted a breeze after he delivered a ringing declaration about the insect world...

... Religious faith is deeply ingrained in Richard Nixon. He grew up in a stern Quaker family and his mother was firm about the family's churchgoing. Young Richard attended church twice on Sunday and once at midweek. He also played the piano for Sunday school and later taught a class at Whittier. Afterward, as a lawyer, Nixon disliked hearing explicit details of divorce cases...

... In high school Dick liked football. He played tackle, but he never did make the varsity. Dick rarely played in the games, but he'd hardly ever missed practice. "The kid was just too light," said his former high school coach. "But he was wonderful for morale. He would cheer the other guys. It isn't easy to sit on the bench for four years.

Tomorrow: College and Courtship

The Life Story of Richard Nixon
College and Courtship

Richard Nixon, with characteristic grit, worked his way through Whittier College. He still helped out in the family store. Once in a while he would give his mother a hand with the dishes, but he always pulled the blinds so people couldn't see him at this kind of chore. Dick graduated with an AB degree in 1934, second in his class...

... Dick's outstanding achievements at Whittier earned him a scholarship to Duke University's law school. But even with the help of a scholarship Nixon was constantly strapped for money at Duke. To help conserve his meager funds and Dick lived with three other students in a small shack in a wooded patch a mile and a half from the University. After taking his law degree in 1937, Nixon returned to Whittier and opened a California law office...

... Like any other professional man, Nixon plunged into the various community activities. He joined the Chamber of Commerce, civic clubs, even acted in a Little Theater group. Once he played a district Atty. opposite pretty Patricia Ryan, a local high school teacher. The stage roles ultimately led to a real-life romance, and Dick and Pat Ryan were married in 1940.

Tomorrow: The Big Decision

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The Life Story of Richard Nixon
The Big Decision

Shortly after Pearl Harbor, Nixon went to work for the OPA in Washington. But after eight months he enlisted in the Navy. Dick asked for sea duty immediately, and eventually got his wish. He went overseas with the Combat Air Transport Command and spent 15 months in the South Pacific as an operations officer. Once, on Bogainville, his outfit was under Japanese bombardment for 28 out of 30 nights. For his group was charged with the difficult and dangerous responsibility of hauling cargo to the fighting zones...

... When Nixon returned to the states the Navy gave him some legal work to do. He was assigned to a team of experts that was settling war contracts. On one of his duties carried him to New York City, and Dwight Eisenhower's triumphant victory parade was held while he was there. It was Nixon's first glimpse of Eisenhower. And as he watched, and obscure Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy, little did he realize that in a few years he would be the running mate Of the General in a bitter presidential campaign...

... Late in 1945, a California Republican citizens committee ran a newspaper ad for a candidate to run against new deal congressman Jerry Voorhis. A friend called Nixon in Baltimore where he was awaiting discharge and asked to submit his name. He agreed, and he got the job over three others.

Tomorrow: The Hiss Case

KING FEATURES SYNDICATE
NOVEMBER 1955
1013 Rockwell Ave. Cleveland 14 Ohio

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The Life Story of Richard Nixon - Adulthood
Illustrated by A.S Packer

The Life Story of Richard Nixon
The Hiss Case

Congressional candidate Nixon knew that he was up against a tough opponent. Jerry Voorhis was a veteran politician who had been in Congress for 10 years. But Nixon went to work with a fury. He called on his old debating skill, and challenge the Democrat to five public debates. Nixon raked Voorhis with a withering fire of the New Deal evils and one by about 15,000 votes...

... As a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee, Nixon listened to a person named Whittaker Chambers testified before the committee that Alger Hiss, a former State Department lawyer, was a Communist. His denied the charges and of the committee almost dropped the case but Nixon was unconvinced and his dogged investigation helped to keep the case alive.

He urged the committee to question each man separately and compare facts. A dramatic moment came during a public hearing of the committee when he is faced Chambers to be identified. It was Nixon's belief that Chambers was telling the truth because he knew too much about his dubious stranger. He felt Hiss was lying because his testimony was too smooth and invasive...

... The Hiss case broke wide open when the famed "pumpkin papers" came to light. The "papers" were microfilms of State Department documents. This evidence clinched the case against Hiss for Nixon and Robert Stripling, the committee's chief investigator. It's linked Hiss with espionage and finally helped send him to prison for perjury.

Tomorrow: The Political Wars

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The Life Story of Richard Nixon
The Political Wars

His fine work in the Hiss case already on record, Nixon ran for the Senate in 1950. His Democrat opponent was Helen Galhagan Douglas, a fellow member of Congress. It was a rough campaign with Nixon touring California in a station wagon, Mrs. Douglas in a helicopter. Often he'd say publicly: "Politics is awfully tough on a woman." But in the next breath he scorched her with the fact that she had voted 354 times on the same side as Rep. Vito Marcantonio of the American Labor Party. Rep. Nixon soundly whipped the actress politician by 680,000 votes...

... The moment Eisenhower won the Republican nomination in Chicago in 1952, party wheel horses began looking around for a hard hitting running mate for him. They didn't have to look very far. A glance at Nixon's record convinced them he was their man. He has a good personality, was an effective Communist fighter and had a good war record. He had fought corruption in government which was to be a vital campaign issue. So it was a great moment for Dick Nixon when he was nominated for vice president -- that hot summer night, and posed with Ike. He had come a long way from the California lemon grow...

... The Republicans were blistering the Democrats in the 1952 campaign with charges of Communist infiltration and corrupt government officials when a news reporter dug up a political bombshell. Nixon was accused of accepting a personal Senatorial slush fund of $18,000. Ike said he'd have to come "clean as a hound's tooth"  -- or else. Nixon delivered a dramatic, man to man talk to the nation explaining his financial status. The televised speech reassured his uneasy supporters and was hailed as a great political save.

Tomorrow: A Working Vice President

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The Life Story of Richard Nixon
A Working Vice President

From the time Dick Nixon was sworn in he was determined not to be labeled a "Throttlebottom" -- political lingo for a "do-nothing" Vice President. He wanted to be useful. He got his wish, too, for Ike introduced him to the intricacies of the executive branch from the start. With speeches, conferences and other activities Nixon had little time for anything else. He misses frolicking with his two energetic daughters, Tricia, 9, and Julie, 7. About the only time Nixon has with them is from 7:15 in the morning until he leaves for his office in the capital at 8 ...

... The President's confidence in Nixon was reflected in the global goodwill trip he sent him on in 1953. The job calls for winning friends in the Far East, but we also needed vital facts about the area. Nixon, accompanied by his wife, covered 45,539 miles in 10 weeks. In the air between countries, Nixon got ready for the next stop with thorough briefings by embassy officials. The Nixon formula was simple and direct -- a handshake. At Tokyo, for example, the wrongs lined the streets, and Dick stopped the motorcade often to shake hands with people. Not only did he prove to be a good public relations man, he was an effective agent as well ...

... Vice Pres. Nixon has trained hard for his role during Ike's illness. Besides the briefings and conferences, the President has opened many doors for Dick said that he would be qualified to step into such an emergency. Nixon sits with the Cabinet and the important national Security Council. He presides over both groups in the President's absence. A top official put it this way: "Dick knows every member of the White House staff, and has worked closely with the whole Eisenhower team." So one thing is certain.  -- The No. 2 man is well-prepared for his present duties.

KING FEATURES SYNDICATE
NOVEMBER 1955
1013 Rockwell Ave. Cleveland 14 Ohio

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NOTES

This is a set of two printer's proofs or newspaper proofs of a special series of comics produced by King Features Syndicate in 1955, after President Eisenhower had a heart attack and many of the presidential functions were taken over by VP Richard Nixon while Eisenhower was recovering. It was drawn by A.S. Packer, who was a very popular illustrator who worked for King Features Syndicate.

Printer's proofs are not original artwork. They are photostats of original artwork. They were then shipped to newspapers all across the country to serve as new originals in the printing process.

This set of  six rows of comics would have run for six days. So the local newspapers would have cut and pasted the cut-out pieces of the printer's proofs onto cardboard boards, that were then turned into new original photostats that were then turned into printing plates that were then turned into actual newspapers. So this series of six rows of comics would have run for six days.

In any case they are very unique and very rare. Also they are very thin and fairly fragile too, with small tears along the folds where they have been stored for the past 60 years. Also including small tears and rips along the edges and a few small pieces broken off. As is clear from the photographs.

Overall size is 19.5 x 13.5 inches. Indeed there may only be a few surviving copies left in the entire world.